Above: First panel of “I Had a Teenage Abortion” from Wimmen’s Comix #1 (1972). Moodian, Patricia, ed. Berkeley, CA: Last Gasp.
When the first issue of Wimmen’s Comix was published in late 1972, Roe v. Wade was not yet the law of the land. Abortion was illegal in 30 of 50 states, and legal only in certain circumstances, like rape or incest, in all others. While young women today purportedly don’t realize the significance of a symbolic coat hanger, before Roe thousands of women suffered and died after undergoing dangerous illegal abortions. Lora Fountain’s first story in Wimmen’s Comix — the artist appears in only two editions of the anthology — tells the story of an unhappily pregnant teenager forced to scrounge up $300 in cash to pay for her back-alley abortion, during which she is given nothing for the pain except a swig from a bottle of gin. When she goes to seek medical assistance for severe complications after the procedure, the doctor threatens to call the cops.Though Fountain’s next contribution to Wimmen’s Comix, “Movin’ to the Country” (1973), tackled a far less controversial topic, she also edited a comic book dedicated solely to sex education — Facts O’ Life Sex Education Funnies (1972).
These comics, in addition to Joyce Farmer and Lyn Chevli’s Abortion Eve (1973), have been cited by scholars as revolutionary for their handling of sexual health issues that women (and men) had only just begun to discuss publicly. Sociologist Paul Lopes writes, “Women underground artists as self-identified feminists in the seventies, while like all underground comix artists pushing the envelope of acceptable conventional norms, presented a more coherent politics in their intervention in the underground comix movement. They focused on feminist political positions related to sexism, homophobia, physical abuse, and abortion. Like other underground comix artists, their politics were up front and, so to speak, in your face,”
Today, Lora Fountain lives in Paris, France, where she is a literary agent with Agence Littéraire Lora Fountain & Associates representing adult and children’s fiction and graphic novels. She recently visited New York with fellow underground cartoonist and WC contributor Aline Kominsky-Crumb, to promote the Crumbs’ new book Drawn Together. (Fountain is the Crumbs’ agent.) I spoke with her via email to ask about her contributions to Wimmen’s Comix, and her involvement with underground comix more generally.
Samantha Meier (SM): How did you get involved in underground comix generally? Had you ever done comix before?
Lora Fountain (LF): My mother was an artist, and I drew a lot when I was a child, but I never did comics. I didn’t have many comics, but I read them at the drugstore in our small town or at friends’ homes, and the Sunday comics were a favorite of mine. In September 1970, I met Gilbert Shelton whose comics I’d been reading in the LA Free Press. We moved in together a couple of months later. Through Gilbert I met Robert Crumb in the spring of 1971.
SM: How did you meet the other people from Wimmen’s Comix, and get involved?
LF: Gilbert and I moved to San Francisco in the fall of 1971, after I finished at UCLA, and at that time, there was a very active underground comics scene in the Bay Area. Gilbert already knew most of the male artists, as well as Trina Robbins. I met Aline Kominsky at a party soon afterwards, and then Diane Noomin moved to San Francisco a year or so later. Just about everyone was at all the same parties, so we all got to know each other socially. I can’t really remember [how I got involved with WC], but I was happy to be asked to participate in the first issue.
It sounded like fun and a good way to show the male cartoonists that there were a lot of talented women artists around, too.
I was only in the first few issues of Wimmen’s Comix. I realized fairly quickly that writing and drawing comics wasn’t my strong point, and I began doing video instead and co-founded a bilingual women’s video collective called Video Compañía. I later made a documentary about medical malpractice insurance and two educational videos about pregnancy and childbirth in Spanish and another in English with a black family. (All the videos at the time were of white families only).
SM: What would you say was the goal or purpose of Wimmen’s Comix?
LF: To provide a place where women artists could get their work published, which wasn’t really possible in the men’s comics.
SM: What was the structure of the “Wimmen’s Comix collective” like? Did you attend meetings, and what were they like?
LF: I don’t think it was particularly structured. We were all trying to be free spirits and do our own thing, so I don’t remember the meetings being all that organized. My main memory is of sitting around in someone’s living room talking about what stories each of us wanted to do. You’ve seen the illustration with everyone’s self-portraits. That’s pretty much what it was like.
SM: Can you tell me about Facts O’ Life Funnies? How did you end up being the editor for that comic, and what made you want to do that?
LF: I got the idea for a sex education comic when I was working at a number of clinics in Los Angeles. There really weren’t any interesting educational materials for young people, so I went to the National Sex Forum at the Glide Foundation and convinced them to give me a grant to develop a sex education comic.Then I talked Gilbert, Robert, Shary Flenniken, Terre and Ted Richards and a bunch of other cartoonists into doing stories. The fact that they all got paid up front made them pretty easy to convince.
That first printing was 25,000 copies, and they sold out almost immediately, so there was a second printing of 100,000 copies. I got interviewed by the San Francisco Chronicle, and AP picked up the story. I was working at SF General Hospital at the time, and the mail room was inundated for a few weeks!
There was a little hate mail, but most was positive.
SM: Were you involved in the women’s movement at that time, or later?
LF: I was fairly active politically while I was at UCLA and worked as a volunteer sex education counselor at the LA Free Clinic and the Venice Youth Clinic. I was also involved in the anti-war movement and the early ecology action groups.
I was pretty involved in the abortion rights movement and worked at an illegal abortion clinic in Santa Monica that was set up to challenge the California abortion laws. It was illegal, but not secret and was mentioned in an article about the abortion laws across the U.S. in Newsweek (or TIME, I forget which). This was in the spring and summer of 1970. The clinic eventually was closed down by the police, but I was lucky enough not to be there at the time and didn’t get arrested. (That was because a crew from CBC-TV from Toronto was interviewing one of the founders at my apartment when the bust happened.)
SM: Did you consider Wimmen’s Comix to be political?
LF: I think it was only political in the sense that it was a forum for women artists to get their work in print.
The illustrated introduction to the senior thesis that started it all.